- Matrices.A-B (1.5 MB)
- Matrices.C (1.3 MB)
- Matrices.D-F (1.6 MB)
- Matrices.G-K (1.3 MB)
- Matrices.L-O (1.5 MB)
- Matrices.P-R (1.6 MB)
- Matrices.S (1.6 MB)
- Matrices.T-Z (1.4 MB)
- All MIAS (128 K)

**Format.** Appendix C contains files for n x n associative matrices saved in
Microsoft's
Rich Text Format to preserve the layout, as well as a text file for MIAs (non-normed
associates of
normed words). The files labeled Matrices.A-B, and so on, can be opened in WORD or
BBEdit.
These files contain all of the targets that have been normed beginning with the specified
letters. If
the layout is lost during import, we suggest that it be opened in WORD, then select the
entire file
and convert the font to Courier regular 9 point. Then, in Page Set Up, select Horizontal
and a 78%
Scale. With these choices, each matrix in the file will appear organized and readable even
for the
words with the largest numbers of associates. The ALL MIAS file is a text file that can be
opened
in WORD, BBEDit, StatView, or Excel. The latter two programs can be used to open this
file in
columns.

**Data.** Appendix C provides an alphabetical listing of the n x n associative
matrices for the
normed words along with a file for missing associates. The ALL MIAS file lists the
normed words
with associates that have not yet been normed, their set size, each missing associate, the
rank of the
missing associate in the set and, finally, its strength. In general, missing associates
represent weak
associates in the set of the normed word, and have a mean rank in the set of 12.62 (SD =
4.78) and
a mean strength of connection to the normed word of .02 (SD = .01).

The files labeled Matrices.A-B, and so on, offer a two-dimensional view of the information in Appendix A. The matrices provide a concrete representation of associative structure for a given word and they can be useful when interest is focused on controlling or manipulating the number and pattern of connections between a word and its associates. For example, as shown in Table 9, the word DINNER has a set of five associates, including supper, eat, lunch, food, and meal. In this matrix and in all others, only the first three letters of each associate are shown on the columns to conserve space (each associate is printed completely on the rows).

DINNER Mss:5 MssA:12.60 Conc:5.38 ConcA:5.46 Freq:91 ConnA:17 ConnM:3.40 ResP:0.60 UI:1.00 |DIN|SUP|EAT|LUN|FOO|MEA|#Co|PrT|΅St|Mss|PrA| __________|___|___|___|___|___|___|___|___|___|___|___| DINNER | - |.54|.11|.10|.09|.09| - | - | - | - | - | __________|___|___|___|___|___|___|___|___|___|___|___| SUPPER |.55| |.02|.03|.17|.01| 4 |.80|.06|11 |.36| __________|___|___|___|___|___|___|___|___|___|___|___| EAT | | | | |.41|.02| 2 |.40|.21|11 |.18| __________|___|___|___|___|___|___|___|___|___|___|___| LUNCH |.27|.02|.08| |.20|.06| 4 |.80|.09|17 |.24| __________|___|___|___|___|___|___|___|___|___|___|___| FOOD | | |.41|.01| |.02| 3 |.60|.14|18 |.17| __________|___|___|___|___|___|___|___|___|___|___|___| MEAL |.21|.06|.06|.06|.49| | 4 |.80|.17| 6 |.67| __________|___|___|___|___|___|___|___|___|___|___|___| #Connect | 3| 2| 4| 3| 4| 4| ProbConnec|.60|.50|1.0|.75|1.0|1.0| ΅ Strength|.34|.04|.14|.03|.32|.03|

Table 9 |
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DINNER and the connections among its associates. |

To construct each matrix, each of its associates was normed with separate groups of subjects, e.g.,SUPPER was presented to one group, EAT to another, and so on. The matrices contain forward strengths and should be read along their rows from left to right. For example, when SUPPER was normed, it produced LUNCH as a target with a forward strength of .03. To determine backward strength, look up the pair in reverse order, e.g., for LUNCH-to- SUPPER look in the LUNCH row which shows this value to be .02. The total number of matrices (4,095) presented in this appendix is smaller than the total number of normed words (5, 019) because any normed word having an non-normed associate stronger than .04 was eliminated from the pool. Of the words comprising the pool, an average of 92% (SD = 8%) of their associates have been normed. The absence of a value in the matrix is interpreted as an indication that there is either no connection or that it is too weak to be measured by free association and therefore represents a negligible value that presumably can be ignored.

As can be seen by reading along the first column of the matrix, some of the words produced by DINNER also produce this word as a response (e.g., supper, lunch and meal each produce DINNER). The DINNER-to-supper-to-DINNER connection is an example of a 2- step link (.54 x .55), and for convenience of reference we refer to such links as resonant connections because they return to the target. Also note that there are associate-to-associate connections throughout the matrix, e.g., supper is connected to each of the other four associates in the set, eat is connected to food and meal, and so on. In our terms, such connections define the connectivity of the normed word.

Indices of both resonance and connectivity are reported in the printed version of the norms and in other appendices because they appear to effect cued recall and recognition (e.g., Nelson, Bennett, Gee, & Schreiber, 1993; Nelson et al., 1998). They may be important in other tasks as well, and such values are reported in Appendices A and B with a USE CODE (UC) index of 1 or 0. In Appendix C all of the reported matrices have a UC index of 1. A UC of 1 indicates that all of the critical associates of a word have been normed. Given an interest in either resonance or connectivity as variables, only those with a UC designation of 1 should be selected in building lists for experiments. An even more stringent criterion can be used by selecting only those items with a Usability Index (UI) of 1.00. At the top of each matrix, the UI index indicates the proportion of associates normed.

Quick Reference. Each matrix provides some redundant as well as some new information about each normed word that is listed on the same line as the normed word. It also provides a list of the missing associates listed under the matrix, if any, as well as summary calculations on the rows and columns that some may find useful. It should be noted that summary calculations appearing in the ProbConnec row have been adjusted for missing associates and self- connections (each were subtracted from the divisor). The information provided about the target is defined in Table 10 (see other Appendices for comparable statistics):

Table 10 | |
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Abbreviations of terms and their equivalencies in Appendix C. | |

Abbreviation | Definition |

Mss (also see QSS or TSS) | Meaning Set Size of Normed Word |

MssA | Average Meaning Set Size of the Associates of the Normed Word |

Conc (also see CON) | Concreteness Rating of the Normed Word |

ConcA | Average Concreteness Rating of the Associates of the Normed Word |

Freq (Also see QFR &TFR) | Kucera & Francis (1967) Printed Frequency of the normed Word |

ConnA | Number of Connections Among the Associates of the Normed Word |

ConnM (also see QMC & TMC) | Mean number of Connections for Each Associate of the Normed Word |

ResP (also see QPR & TPR) | Probability that the Associates Produce the Normed Word as an Associate |

UI | Usability Index |